Amazon is gearing up to release its long-rumored smartphone later this year to directly compete with offerings from Apple and Samsung, reportsThe Wall Street Journal. According to the report, the company has been showing off prototypes of its handsets to developers in San Francisco and Seattle in recent weeks, with Amazon likely announcing the phone by the end of June and launching it by the end of September.
The people said Amazon hopes to distinguish its phone in a crowded market with a screen capable of displaying seemingly three-dimensional images without special glasses, these people said. They said the phone would employ retina-tracking technology embedded in four front-facing cameras, or sensors, to make some images appear to be 3-D, similar to a hologram, the people said.Rumors of the phone first surfaced in July of 2012, where it was reported that the company was working with Foxconn on the device. Last May, another report noted that the smartphone would join other products to complement Amazon’s popular line of Kindle tablets and E-readers.
The news comes as Apple is expected to ship its next-generation iPhone later this year, which may come in two different sizes: 4.7 inches and 5.5 inches. Recent reports have noted that the 4.7 inch version will ship in the third quarter of 2014, while the larger version may ship later due to production issues.
Along with a larger screen, both models of the iPhone 6 are expected to include a faster A8 processor, Touch ID fingerprint sensor, 1GB of RAM hackintoshguide, and camera improvements in the form of optical image stabilization.
Rustica is also used for entheogenic purposes by South American shamans. Growing in the rainforest it contains up to twenty times more nicotine than common North American varieties such as N. tabacum. Other reasons for its shamanic use are the comparatively high levels of MAOI beta-carbolines, including harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine. Most commonly, it is allowed to soak in water, and the water is then insufflated; it is also smoked in cigars and used as an enema and as an anthelmitic effective against tapeworm infections. In the east southern of Turkey, people use this herb and ashes of some tree bodies to make a snuff called “Maraş Otu”. They use this putting under either of the lips like Swedish snus. It is also a common admixture of Ayahuasca in some parts of the rainforest.In Russia, N.rustica is called “makhorka” (махорка). It was smoked casually by the lower classes before normal tobacco became widely available (after WWII), and is still sometimes smoked by peasants and farmers.Nicotiana rustica leaves have a nicotine content as high as 9%, whereas Nicotiana tabacum (common tobacco) leaves contain about 1 to 3%.
References1. ^ “Nicotiana rustica information from NPGS/GRIN”. www.ars-grin.gov. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?300393. Retrieved 2008-03-17.2. ^ 1992 – Food of the Gods: The Search for the Original Tree of Knowledge – A Radical History of Plants, Drugs, and Human Evolution (Bantam) ISBN 0-553-37130-4 Pg. 196 – Shamanic Tobaccos3. ^ “Nicotiana sp.”. artsci.wustl.edu. http://artsci.wustl.edu/~gjfritz/Nicotiana_sp.html. Retrieved 2008-03-17.4. visit for the best protein
The previous information was received from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicotiana_rustica
U.S. FEDERAL LEGAL SUMMARY
Tobacco and tobacco products are unscheduled in the United States and are legal for adults to both sell and possess. It is against FDA regulations to sell the following products to those under the age of 18:
* Cigarette tobacco
* Smokeless tobacco (Smokeless tobacco includes loose leaf chewing tobacco, plug chewing tobacco, twist chewing tobacco, moist snuff, and dry snuff.)
It is not federally illegal for those under 18 years old to purchase or possess tobacco…only for stores to sell to them. Some individual states have enacted legislation making possession by minors against the law.
See the FDA’s New Federal Tobacco Regulations regarding children and tobacco.
U.S. STATE LAW #
Generally in the US, most states now require tobacco products be purchased by those age 18 or over, in some states (such as Alaska), the age requirement is 19. There are some groups who advocate raising the legal minimum age to 21.
Starting in the 1990s, some states in the U.S. and some cities now ban smoking in indoor public spaces, restaurants, office buildings, bars, etc. New laws (the earliest we know of are from 2007) in some local areas have begun to ban tobacco smoking from public outdoor spaces and even in private spaces justified by health risks associated with second-hand smoke. See Smokes snuffed in Oakland public spots (Sep 19 2007) and Belmont council wants to ban smoking in condos and apartments (Sep 13 2007).
On July 29, 2008 the San Francisco Board of Supervisors passed an ordinance that will prohibit pharmacies from selling tobacco products, effective October 1, 2008. (see SF Chronicle article)
Effective Jan 1 2007, the Louisiana SmokeFree Air Act took effect, prohibiting smoking in public buildings, schools, and restaurants. The law makes an exception for private residences and vehicles, bars, tobacco shops, and race tracks. The penalty for first-time offenders is a $25 citation, followed by a $50 citation for second-time offenses and $100 citations for subsequent offenses. (see text of law, KATC News coverage, thanks GR).
Maryland bans the sale of cigarettes containing cloves: “”It is illegal to sell, give, or otherwise distribute clove cigarettes to ANY person, even if eighteen years old or older [Maryland Code, Criminal Law, 10-106].” See http://www.fha.state.md.us/ohpetup/tobacco/selling.cfm. (thanks C) (last updated Jun 2007)
INTERNATIONAL LAW #
Minimum Age: 18 to purchase, regulated by federal government. Large fines for any business and/or individual who sells tobacco to a minor. Still many vendors don’t ID check and fines may be increased. Nicotine patches and gum are sold at pharmacies at the discretion of the pharmacist. New laws in several states ban smoking indoors in public places (Tasmania, Western Australia, Queensland, ACT) with bans coming in other states in 2007.
Minimum Age: Tobacco products cannot be sold to persons under 16. (thanks FH)
Bhutan may be the first country in the world to have banned all tobacco products for its citizens. The ban reportedly does not apply to “foreign tourists”, diplomats, and those working for NGOs”. See http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4012639.stm Dec 2004. All tobacco products have been banned in the Himalayan nation of Bhutan. Offenders face a $210 dollar fine and shop owners will lose their business license. Foreigners and diplomats are exempt, but will be charged with smuggling if they transfer tobacco to locals. The government has imposed a 100% tax on all tobacco products brought into the country for personal consumption by Bhutanese. (thanks RB) (last updated Jun 2007)
Tobacco is legal for persons over the age of 18 in Brazil, though the age limit is reportedly widely ignored. (see WHO report (thanks P)
Minimum Age: It is prohibited by federal law to provide tobacco products to persons under 18 years of age. Further restrictions may apply in individual provinces. For example, in Alberta, people under age 18 who are caught smoking or in possession of tobacco products can not only have their cigarettes seized by police, but also can be fined up to $100. Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta and Manitoba have a minimum age of 18 for purchase, the rest are 19. (thanks B) See CBCNews Timeline of Canadian Tobacco Laws.
According to BD: Sales/Distribution of Cigarettes to minors of school age is prohibited. [China's Law to Prevent Crimes by Minors, Item 15] and Smoking by elementary and secondary school students is prohibited. [Law of Jun 29 1991 on the exclusive sale of tobacco of the People's Republic of China]
However, these laws are universally ignored. In fact all citizens I interviewed, including a police officer were very fuzy or completely ignorant about the particular rules concerning tobacco.
Minimum Age: 18 to purchase, law not widely known. (J)
Minimum Age: Illegal to sell tobacco to anyone under 16, law widely ignored. (thanks J)
Minimum Age: 18 to purchase, raised from age 16 on Sept 1, 2007. Although the German minimum age law was long-ignored, cigarette vending machines now use bank cards to verify age. Some vending machines still allow those age 16 to buy cigarettes, but the German Government has given until the beginning of 2009 for all to be changed to the new date. (See this World Tobacco report for more information.) (thanks C, DG)
Effective Jan 1 2008, each state is required to take steps to eliminate smoke from any venue where people are employed. As a result, smoking has been effectively banned by several German states in bars, restaurants, etc, subject to fine. (see Spiegel Online article) (thanks JL) (last updated Jan 2008)
Bidis are widely smoked. In 2008, India passed a national law banning smoking in most public and work places. See Washington Post for discussion. (last updated Oct 2008)
Legal for persons over the age of 18, though the age limit is completely ignored. (thanks M.)
Minimum Age: 18 to purchase and consume (raised from 16 to 18 in ~2000). Large fines for selling to a minor. Restrictions: There is no smoking allowed in places of employment (with a few exceptions).
Minimum Age: 18 to purchase both cigarettes and tobacco (law established Feb 2005). Fines of about $3300 for business or individual who sells tobacco to a minor. Vendors seldom check ID, law widely ignored as of Apr 2005. (thanks HND)
Minimum Age: 18 to purchase. Regulated by state monopoly and growing tobacco requires licensure from the government. (thanks DL)
Minimum Age: 20 to purchase pursuant a 1900 law. Available in vending machines, making age restriction difficult. Rarely enforced. (unconfirmed) (thanks N and Q)
In Sept a visitor reported: “It is illegal to use cigarettes before 18. The fine for using them is about 5 ls (about $10). It’s illegal to sell them to underage people too, but it is widely ignored in Latvia.” (unconfirmed) (thanks H)
Minimum Age: 18 to purchase, law is widely ignored. Some stores and most street vendors ignore age requirement for anyone who can pay. (unconfirmed, thanks Z)
As of Feb 2008 smoking is outlawed in bars, restaurants, and enclosed public spaces throughout Mexico (see Reuters article). Effective April 2008, smoking is prohibited in all public spaces in Mexico City, subject to fine (see Reuters article). (thanks J)
Minimum Age: 16 to purchase, law is widely ignored. (thanks JP)
Minimum Age: 18 to purchase or sell, law is enforced but availability among youth is widespread. (thanks P)
Minimum Age: 18 to purchase, law is widely ignored. (thanks MS)
Minimum Age: 18 to purchase, recently changed from 16, law widely ignored. (unconfirmed) (thanks D)
Minimum Age: 18 to purchase, law universally ignored. Not illegal to smoke/possess under 18, smoking indoors allowed nearly everywhere. (unconfirmed) (thanks PC)
Minimum Age: 18 to purchase, law widely ignored. (thanks MLN)
Minimum Age: 18 to purchase, law widely ignored. (unconfirmed) (thanks MS)
As of January, 2006, Spain has raised the minimum age to legally purchase tobacco to 18. Vending machines are still widely available, but it is illegal for minors to use them. (thanks D)
No minimum age for smoking. Laws vary slightly between England, Scotland, and Wales. It is NOT illegal to possess or use tobacco products. It is illegal to sell tobacco or cigarettes to anyone under 16 and sellers must be licensed. Under the Children and Young Persons (Protection from Tobacco) Act of 1991 maximum fines for selling to under 16s were increased from BP400 to BP2,500.
Starting in 2003, the Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act banned all advertising and promotion of tobacco products. After October 2007, minimum age to purchase cigarettes will rise to 18. On July 1, 2007, tobacco smoking will be banned in all indoor public spaces including restaraunts, pubs, workplaces, etc. Smoking outdoors and in private homes is unaffected. See http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6216523.stm. (thanks DW, M, J) (last updated May 29, 2007)
The previous information was received from:http://www.erowid.org/plants/tobacco/tobacco_law.shtml
|During the past several years, new types of
beverages have been developed in connection with
the rave and techno culture. Marketed as best pre workout “energy
drinks;’ they are offered to ravers as stimulating,
healthy alternatives to alcohol, which in the rave
culture is becoming increasingly frowned upon as
a party drug (Ahrens 1994, Millman and Beeder
1994). Many of the names of these drinks-for
example, Mystery (an “official Michael Jackson
Product”), Fit for Fun, Flying Horse, Warp 4 Space
Drink, Cult Energy Activator, Magic Man, Taurus,
and XTC (= ecstasy = MDMA)-suggest improbable
The basis of most of these products is guarana
(see Paullinia cupana). They usually also contain
various vitamins, DHA (polyunsaturated fatty
acids), taurine (a substance that appears to be
pharmacologically inactive), propolis, and pure
caffeine. However, the caffeine concentration typically
is not as high as that found in a cup of coffee
(cf. Coffea arabica). In other words, these products
are as frustrating as herbal ecstasy.
See also the entry for herbal ecstasy.
Ahrens, Helmut. 1994. Partydrogen-safer-use-info
zu: Ecstasy, Speed, LSD, Kokain. Berlin:
Arbeitgruppe “Eve and Rave.”
Die Gestalten Berlin and Chromapark, eds. 1995.
Localizer 1.0: The techno house book. Berlin: DieGestalten-
Millman, Robert B., and Ann Bordwine Beeder.
1994. The new psychedelic culture: LSD, ecstasy,
“rave” parties and The Grateful Dead. Psychiatric
Annals 24 (3): 148-50.
ingredients found in pre workout supplements http://bestpreworkoutsupplementreviews.com information on example supplements.
Aphrodin, corymbin, corynin, hydroergotocin,
johimbin, quebrachin, quebrachina, yohimbenin,
N yohimbin, yohimbina, yohimbinum, yohimvetol Substance type: aspidosperma alkaloid, indole
Yohimbine was first extracted from the bark of Pausinystalia yohimba and described in the
nineteenth century. It is a typical alkaloid in plants
from the Apocynaceae Family and is related to the
Rauvolfia alkaloids, and it constitutes the primary
alkaloid (1 0/0) in Alstonia angustifolia. It is also
present in some species of Rauvolfia, especially the
African species Rauvolfia macrophylla Stapf
(Timmins and Court 1974).
Yohimbine was once regarded as an MAO
inhibitor, a view that is no longer considered accurate.
Rather, it is simply an a -adrenergic blocker
that consequently stimulates the release of noradrenaline
at the nerve endings. This makes
noradrenaline available in the corpus cavernosum
and results in an erection (Roth et al. 1994, 955*;
As a sympathicolytic agent, [yohimbine]
dilates the peripheral blood vessels and
reduces blood pressure. The aphrodisiac effect
is explained through a vasodilatation of the
genital organs and an increased excitability of
the reflexes in the sacral medulla. (Roth et al.
Yohimbine’s aphrodisiac and virility-enhancing
effects, and its therapeutic efficaciousness in
treating impotence and erectile dysfunction, have been demonstrated in a
number of clinical double-blind studies (Buffum
1982; Miller 1968; Sobotka 1969).505
Consequently, yohimbine hydrochloride has
been approved as a specific medicine for the treatment of impotence (sexual neurasthenia). The
recommended dosage is 5 to 10 mg taken three
times daily as a short-term treatment over three to
four weeks. Higher individual dosages (15 to 25
mg) result in psychoactive effects that are somewhat
reminiscent of those of LSD, but with much
less emotional content and an emphasis on
physical phenomena (sexual desire, erotic enjoyment,
and increased sensations of pleasure).
Overdoses can be unpleasant but do not appear to be particularly dangerous (cf. Lewin 1992, 750*):
A chemist had taken an almost 1000-fold
dosage (1.8 g). He became unconscious for a
few hours (during which time a pronounced
priapism was observed) but was able to be
discharged from the hospital within a day.
(Roth et al. 1994,956*)Commercial Forms and Regulations
The alkaloid is available as yohimbine hydrochloride.
Yohimbine is a prescription medication.
(from Geschwinde 1996, ·145 f. *; Hofmann
1954;Lewin 1992*; Rompp 1995,5093*; Roth
et al. 1994*; supplemented)
Chrysatropasaure, gelseminsaure, scopoletina, scopoletine,
Substance type: coumarin
The coumarin-derivative scopoletin was first
isolated from the genus Scopolia and is named for
the genus (Chaubal and Iyer 1977). Scopoletin is
found in numerous plants that are utilized for
medicinal or psychoactive purposes. It is the
characteristic constituent in Brunfelsia spp. (Mors
and Ribeiro 1957).
Scopoletin is known to inhibit plant growth. It
may possibly have a certain psychoactive effect on
humans, although there is no data at present to
support this assertion. Scopoletin is a substance
that clearly merits additional research.Plants Containing Scopoletin
Atropa spp. (see Atropa belladonna)
Brunfelsia brasiliensis (see Brunfelsia spp.)
Brunfelsia chiricaspi (see Brunfelsia spp.)
Brunfelsia grandiflora (see Brunfelsia spp.)
Brunfelsia pauciflora (see Brunfelsia spp.)
Markea formicarium Dammer (see
Scopolia spp. (see Scopolia carniolica)URTICACEAE
Urtica dioica 1.
Commercial Forms and Regulations
So this past Friday night I went out to smoke hookah with some friends and at around 11 o’clock I decided to pop a molly that I had left over from a while ago. I only told a few people there that I was taking it and I was expecting it to be a pretty mild roll because I had taken a molly just the week before it. I was rolling pretty hard by the time we left the hookah bar (around 12:30) and a small group of us decided to go smoke at a little park that is always empty. We smoked about three bowls and then started to play/chill on the playground set. This is when I started tripping a lot harder than I expected. I have smoked while rolling before but usually I feel like it makes the roll a little less intense while this time it definitely brought out the more psychedelic side of the mdma. I was seeing a lot of people walking around. It was obvious that they were fake but my mind was playing a lot of tricks on me and it took me a few seconds each time to figure out that the people weren’t real. The trees all told me stories straight out of Alice in Wonderland for some reason…and any lights I saw tripped me the fuck out. It wasn’t that the experience was too much for me..more that I just wasn’t expecting it. I eventually threw up a little bit and was able to come down from it but my chill evening turned into a bit of a bumpy ride for a little while…after going through that I have decided that I won’t take mdma unless I’m at a rave or someplace where I can dance it off. Has anyone else gotten similar psychedelic effects off of mdma while smoking? I wasn’t aware that it was possible to trip off of it but the experience felt very similar to the last time I had shrooms.
Before I start, I must first point out that I’m not a pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or any other type of certified medical expert. What you read in the paragraphs that follow, is based entirely on my own opinion, and of course on the countless hours I’ve dedicated to researching the subject of ADHD.
In this article, I’ll be discussing the pros and cons of natural ADHD remedies, and also the pros and cons of ADHD prescription drugs. Furthermore, I’ll be offering a bit of advice with regards to choosing a natural remedy, if that’s the route you wish to follow.
Cost - As one would expect, ADHD prescription drugs cost significantly more than homeopathic remedies. On the other hand, it can sometimes cost parents less if they have their kids treated with prescription drugs, since most medical insurance plans will cover the cost of the drugs, while most will not do the same if your opt for a natural treatment plan. Additionally, and depending on a family’s circumstances, government grants may be available to parents of ADHD children. However, if no financial assistance is available to you, you can expect to spend considerably more on ADHD stimulant drugs than you would on most homeopathic treatments.
Safety - There’s not really much to debate on as far as personal safety is concerned, since natural remedies are almost always far less risky than prescription meds. This is particularly true when it comes to the treatment of ADHD. To date, there have been an alarming number of deaths attributed to the most commonly prescribed ADHD drugs. Many patients also have to endure unpleasant side effects, some of which are disturbingly serious. On the other hand, there’s never been a single case reported of patients suffering ill effects after taking natural supplements.
Effectiveness - Contrary to what the giant pharmaceutical companies would have people believe, herbal remedies for ADHD have been used successfully by countless parents already. Admittedly, they are not always 100% effective, but then again, neither are the prescription drugs. The biggest difference being, herbal remedies aim to treat the disorder, while prescription drugs simply suppress the symptoms.
What to Look For When Choosing a Natural Remedy
As is always the case, no two homeopathic treatments are likely to be the same, so it’s always best to single out a few that look promising, and then narrow down your options by researching each one in turn. Reviews and testimonials can well and truly be worth their weight in gold, since you’ll be reading reports which have been written by real people who have firsthand experience with the various treatments. Another general rule of thumb is that you should only consider buying products which have been produced to internationally accepted standards. In the USA, this would mean a manufacturer’s facilities would have to be FDA approved.
Piperaceae (Pepper Family); Pipereae Tribe
The genus Piper includes some 1,000 to 1,200
species, many of which are ethnobotanically
significant (Halzl et al. 1993, 191; Schultes and
Raffauf 1990, 364*). Half of all Piper species occur
in the American tropics. These include epiphytic
plants, climbers, half-shrubs, and small trees. A
large number of essential oils occur in the genus,
so many leaves, inflorescences, and fruits are
highly aromatic and have therefore attracted
cultural attention. Some Piper species are said to
have psychoactive, and others aphrodisiac, effects.
Safrole and asarone have been identified in various
species (such as Piper divaricatum Meyer, P.
manassausense, P. futokadsura, and P. sarmentosum)
(Avella et al. 1994). Piper abutiloides Kunth,
Piper cincinnatoris Yuncker, and Piper lindbergii C.
DC., which are used in Brazilian folk medicine as
analgesics, are pharmacologically active (Costa et
al. 1989). It has even been suggested that the
common black pepper (Piper nigrum 1.) is capable
of inducing hallucinogenic effects (Schultes and
The so-called red pepper comes not from a
Piper species but from the Peruvian pepper tree
(Schinus moUe 1.; cf. Norman 1991,53*). In South
America, it is used to aid in the fermentation of
chicha and also as a beer additive.
Piper amalago L. [syn. Piper medium Jacq.]amalago
The leaves of this bush, which is indigenous to
Central America (southern Mexico, Belize), are
smaller and narrower than those of Piper auritum,
but the plant is otherwise quite similar in appearance.
When rubbed, its leaves smell strongly of the
essential oil safrole. It may be possible to use this
pepper species for psychoactive purposes. The
Maya, who call the plant yaaxpehelche’, regard it as
the “younger sibling” or “female” counterpart of
Piper auritum.Piper angustifolium Ruiz et Pavon-matico
It is not known whether this American pepper
species has psychoactive effects by itself. Because
of the disinfectant properties of its fresh leaves, the
plant is also known as soldier’s herb. Its leaves and
inflorescences are an ingredient in various Aztec
cacao recipes (see Theobroma cacao) and have a
mild stimulating effect because of the essential oil
that is present (R~itsch 1991a, 185*). Some authors
regard Piper angustifolium as a synonym for Piper
elongatum, which is also known as matico pepper.
Piper cubeba L. [syn. Cubeba officinalis Miq. (or
Piper elongatum Vahl [syn. Artanthe elongata
|Piper interitum Trelease-tetsi pepper
The Kulina Indians of Peru use the leaves and
roots of Piper interitum, which they call tetsi, to
produce a snuff used as a substitute for tobacco
snuff (cf. Nicotiana tabacum) that is alleged to
have psychoactive properties (Schultes 1978b,
227*; Schultes and Raffauf 1990, 365 f.*).Piper longum 1. [syn. Chavica roxbhurgii Miq.,
Chavica sarmentosa (Roxb.) Miq., Piper
latifolium Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb.Jlong
In Asia and Arabia, the unripe fruits of the long
pepper are used as a spice, an aphrodisiac, and a
medicine (Fleurentin and Pelt 1982, 92 f. *; Ratsch
1995). They contain approximately 1% essential oil
with sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and p-cymene,
dihydrocarveol, terpinoles, and a-thujene as well
as amides (piperidine and others). The drug has
vasodilatory properties (Holzi et al. 1993,200). In
Asia, long pepper has been used as a spice for
much longer than black pepper (Norman 1991,
52*). While black pepper has been regarded as an
aphrodisiac in Europe since ancient times, long
pepper has an even greater reputation. Long
pepper is a principal ingredient in numerous
recipes for the aphrodisiac preparations used in
tantric rituals (cf. Oriental joy pills). It is regarded
as an "inciter" in Ayurvedic medicine. Its qualities
are pungent, heating, and sweet, which is why it
strengthens the functions of the genital system
and is said to provide the organs of desire with a
warming energy (Lad and Frawley 1987, 249*).
The Ananga-Ranga, an ancient Indian book on the
art of the love, lists a tantric "secret agent"possibly
with psychoactive effects-that awakens
the lingam (= phallus) to life:
Take a few corns of black pepper [Piper
nigrum], seeds of the thorn apple [Datura
metel], one pod of pinpalli (Piper longum,
which yields the pepper that works slowly, or
betel powder [Areca catechu]) with lodhra
peel or Morinda citrifolia, which is used for
dyeing; rub this with light honey and [rub it
on the lingam]. This agent is unsurpassable.
(Johann Wolfgang von Goethes, AnangaRanga
The spice mixture trikatu, “three spices;’ which
is widely known in India, consists of equal parts of
long pepper, black pepper, and dried pieces of
gingerroot (Zingiber officinale). This mixture is
considered to be the most important Ayurvedic
stimulant. Trikatu is a rejuvenator for agni, the
inner fire. At the same time, it is important as an agent that is taken together with other medicines;
its stimulating effects potentiate or improve the
assimilation of all kinds of active substances.
Piper plantagineum Schlecht.
Chaoma, hauma, hom, homa, sauma
The ancient Parsis had a sacred drink known by
the name haoma (also hauma, corresponding to
the Indian soma417), which is reputed to have had
inebriating effects and to have been a source of
divine inspiration. This inebriating drink was
consumed during the communal bull sacrifice. It
was venerated as a god but was condemned by
Zarathustra (= Zoroaster), the founder of the
religion that bears his name. According to Pliny,
Zarathustra was “the creator of magic” who
rejected418 both haoma and the ancient (IndoIranian)
gods, who were the personifications of
the stars, waters, and natural occurrences (fire)
(Gaube 1992, 108, 114).419 These daiwas (“demons,
idols”) were primordially related to the devas, the
plant spirits of the Indians (cf. Stor! 1997*). The
god of the inebriating drink was also known as
Hauma or Haoma. Today, Iranians still refer to
Syrian rue (Peganum harmala) as hom or homa.
In order to extract the sacred juice from the
plant, Haoma as a god must in a certain sense
be killed, and this happens during the pressing
of the juice. During the main ceremony of the
Parsis-the sacrifice-not only is haoma
drunk, that is, one god is offered to another
dying god, but sacred bread is also consumed.
By doing this, the priests and the faithful
desired to partake in the immortality of the
gods and therewith the resurrection of eternal
life. (von Pr6nay 1989,27)
Not only did the Parsis regard haoma as the
primordial plant out of which all other medicinal
plants came, but they also viewed it as a powerful
medicine in itself:
The haoma inebriation is invigorating. Any
mortal that praises haoma like a young son: to
him will haoma make itself available and heal
his body. Since that time have you been
growing on these mountains, the multifarious,
milky, gold-colored haoma; your medicines are
tied to the blisses of Vohu Manah. (Avesta,
The Persians considered the haoma plant to be
a «miracle tree” or an «all-seed tree” from which
the seeds of all trees descended. During the
Hellenic period, the ancient Iranian god Mithra
became the god Mithras, who was cultically worshipped
in a secret male organization. The
veneration of the Parsi haoma lived on in the Mithraic mysteries (Cumont 1981; Ulansey 1991).
Some cult images depict Mithras as a young god
who is grabbing a bull by its nostrils with one
hand and stabbing him with the other:420
It is then that the miracle takes place, that
blessings flow from the body of the bull as it is
collapsing in death. All of the nourishing and
healing plants issue forth from it. This is
suggested by the ears of grain that grow out of
the end of his tail; the most important is the
generative seed that gushes from the bull, and
from which comes future life. Diabolic
animals, snake, scorpion, crab, attempt to steal
this source of life, but the seed is caught in a
vessel and brought to the moon. Purified in
the light of the moon, from there this seed
produces a pair of cattle, and with this pair,
from which the entire earthly race of cattle are
descended, arise all the useful animals. As so it
is that all plant and animal life on earth is
created from the death of the bull. This bull
was the first living being to be created, and the
brutal and gruesome deed that Mithras was
prepared to do against his will upon the
command of the highest god, to kill the
primordial life, brought forth all that is good
in the world, increased life in infinite fashion,
the multifaceted all-life of nature comes from
a mythical, unified living being that had to be
killed for this very purpose . . . this bull is
haoma. (Lommel1949, 212)421
Haoma was stirred together with the fat of a
bull to make the “drink of immortality” (cf. “Polyporus
mysticus”); the psychoactive plant “wards
off death” and symbolizes the energy of life:
This sacred plant is the embodiment or paragon
of the plant world or the primordial plant; it
encompasses the entire plant world within
itself, and its juice represents all of the
nutritional and medicinal powers contained in
the plant world. It is the symbol of nourishment
and healing…. Soma-haoma is thus the all-life,
which comes from heaven and pulses through
all of nature and is given form in all living
beings. . . . During the full moon, when the
vessel is full with the bright life potion, the gods
drink from it. It is from this that they derive
their immortality, for the contents of the moon
is the drink of immortality, amrta, a word
related to ambrosia. (Lomme11949, 213)
Carl Ruck believes that the Parsis remembered
the fly agaric mushroom (Amanita muscaria) (which has often been construed as ambrosia) as
haoma (Ruck 1995, 132*). Unfortunately, the
identity of the true haoma plant remains undetermined.
The limited sources also make it difficult to
reconstruct the method or methods used to
prepare the drink. However, it is very likely that
haoma, like soma, was a plant or preparation that
produced potent psychoactive effects. It may have
been a kind of ayahuasca analog, such as a preparation
made from Peganum harmala and
Phragmites australis or Phalaris arundinacea.
Archaeological finds suggest that Ephedra species
(Ephedra spp.) were consumed ritually in the
haoma cult as part of a beerlike preparation.
The psychedelic or visionary effects of hamoa
were described in the Persian text called the Book of
Arda Viraf (fourth century C.E.).A holy man named
Viraz was inebriated on haoma-his haoma being a
drink called mang made from “wine and henbane”
(cf. Hyoscyamus niger, Vitis vinifera)-and fell
asleep. His soul was led across the bridge that spans
the world mountain and binds this world with the
one beyond and into heaven. The holy man passed
beyond the sphere of the stars and into the realm of
the wise lord of the heavens, Ahura Mazda or
Ohrmuzd, where he was initiated into the secrets of
life after death. After seven days, he descended back
to the earth with instructions to tell the people what
he had seen (Couliano 1995, 140f.*):
In Persia, vision into the spirit world was not
thought to come about simply by divine grace
nor as a reward for saintliness. From the
apparent role of sauma [= haoma] in
initiation rites, experience of the effects of
sauma, which is to say of menog existence,
must have at one time been required of all
priests (or the shamans antecedent to them).
(Flattery and Schwartz 1989, 31)
Some rudiments of the ancient haoma cult have
been preserved in modern Iran. Today, the ritual drink is brewed either from pomegranate JUlCe
(Punica granatum 1.) and ephedra (Ephedra spp.)
or from rue (Ruta graveolens 1.) and milk (Flattery
and Schwartz 1989,80). The fire ritual of the haoma
cult has been integrated into the rites of tantric
Buddhism and has survived into the present day; it
is still practiced in Japan (Saso 1991).
See also the entries for Ephedra gerardiana, Mandragora
spp., Peganum harmala, and soma.
Clauss, Manfred. 1990. Mithras: Kult und Mysterien.
Munich: C. H. Beck.
Cumont, Franz. 1981. Die Mysterien des Mithra.
Flattery, David S., and Martin Schwartz. 1989.
Haoma and harmaline. Near Eastern Studies, vol.
21. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gaube, Heinz. 1992. Zoroastrismus (Die Religion des
Zarathustra). In Die groj3en Religionen des Alten
Orients und der Antike, ed. Emma Brunner-Traut,
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Merkelbach, Reinhold. 1984. Mithras. Konigstein/Ts.:
Lindner, Paul. 1933. Das Geheimnis urn Soma, das
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und Fortschritte 9 (5): 65-66.
Lommel, Herman. 1949. Mithra und das Stieropfer.
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Saso, Michael. 1991. Homa rites and mandala
meditation in Tendai Buddhism. New Delhi:
Aditya Prakashan/International Academy of
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von Pronay, Alexander. 1989. Mithras und die
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Wolf, Fritz. 1910. Avesta: Die Heiligen Bucher der